The Population Police is a totalitarian police force established for the sole purpose of exterminating children other than those born first or second in a family in an effort to quell overpopulation. They are the primary antagonists of the series, and the most powerful organization in the fictional nation. Starting in the book Among the Brave, every family is required to have at least one member a Population Police officer under the penalty of no food.Their logo is described in the book Among the Brave as a group of two circles and a falling tear drop. In the book, it is said that definitions for this logo vary, but Trey strongly suspects that the circles represent two children and the teardrop represents either the third child or his/her parents.
The organization has been led by General Terus since Among the Hidden and control the population through a form of panopticism. Corruption is apparent and the organization is able to influence the government, eventually overthrowing it and taking control by Aldous Krakeneur in Among the Brave. While the group presents itself as all powerful and perfect, rebels and double agents exist within, including Mr. Talbot and later on, Luke Garner and his friends.
The Population Police are eventually removed from power in Among the Free. In a final attempt to retake control while the newly freed population tries to reassert democratic values and stabilize itself, the Population Police and Oscar attempt to use propaganda to blame the faults of the previous government on the existence of third children. However, Luke Garner, in revealing his experiences as a third child, casts doubt into the general populace and force them to think for themselves rather than accepting the arguments of Oscar and the Population Police again, thus enabling the Population Police to be permanently removed.